Saturday, March 05, 2005


"The studies of child adjustment of children reared in homosexual homes versus married couple homes are further confounded by the fact that the children in homosexual homes have spent a significant part of their childhood in married couple homes before divorce and often maintain significant contact with non-custodial fathers. In the study by Golombok, Spencer, and Rutter for example, one-third (twelve subjects) had spent at least five years in a home with mothers and fathers before living in a homosexual setting, another one-third had lived in a married couple home for at least two years.
(Susan Golombok et al., Children in Lesbian and Single-Parent Households: Psychosexual and Psychiatric Appraisal, 24 J. CHILD PSYCHOL. & PSYCHIATRY (1983) :561)

Moreover, only three children had never lived in a married couple home. (Ib.) Golombok, Spencer, and Rutter found no difference in gender identity, sex role, and sexual orientation between the homosexual-reared versus heterosexual mother-reared children they studied. (Ib. :568) However, gender identity is established in the preschool years (Michael Rutter, Psychosexual Development, in SCIENTIFIC FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHIATRY 322, 323 (Michael Rutter ed., 1980)) when most of the subjects in both groups had been still residing with their mother and father, and there are theoretical relationships between gender identity, sex role, and sexual orientation."
(Regent University Law Review
14 Regent U.L. Rev. 343, 2001 / 2002
Studies of Homosexual Parenting: A Critical Review
By George Rekers and Mark Kilgus)

A study of New York children reared by lesbian mothers (mostly in couples) and those reared by divorced homosexual single mothers suggested that"there is a possibility that rearing [by a homosexualparent] might influence [the child's] sexual partner choice, temporarily or permanently."
(Ghazala Afzal Javaid, The Children of Homosexualand Heterosexual Single Mothers, 23
Child Psychiatry & Human Dev. 235, 236 (1993))

Also observed in the previous study was that "a girl in a lesbian homecould be more vulnerable [to developing homosexual attraction] because of an increased awareness of herself in relation to other women .... the effect ofan additional exposure to the subculture"might promote internalized permission for homosexual behaviour."
A 1993 study by Philip A. Belcastro, an independent examination of the methodological validity and reliability of fourteen post-1975 published "data-based studies addressing the affects of homosexualparenting on children's sexual and social functioning," found:

"The most impressive finding is that all of the studies lacked external validity. Furthermore, not a single study remotely represented any sub-population of homosexual parents. This limitation, in terms of scientific inference, is imposing.

With only three exceptions ... the studies' designs presented moderate to fatal threats to their internal validity. Seven studiesdid not utilize a control group and only three studies satisfactorily attempted to match comparison groups....

The majority of studies also suffered from internal validity flawssuch as inadequate instrumentation and disparate testing conditions that ... were well within the researchers' control...

Finally, ...most were biased towards proving homosexual parentswere fit parents....Some of the published works had to disregard their own results in order to conclude that homosexuals were fit parents."

The study concluded that "the statement that there are no significant differences in children reared by homosexual parents versus heterosexual parents is not supportedby the published research base."
(Philip A. Belcastro et al., A Review of Data Based
Studies Addressing the Affects of Homosexual Parenting
on Children's Sexual and Social Functioning
20 J. Divorce & Remarriage A(1993) :105, 110)

....When fathers nurture and care for their children, they do so not quite as "substitute mothers" but differently, as fathers. For example, some studies show that fathers play with their infant children more than mothers, play more physical and tactile games than mothers, and use fewer toys when playing with their children. Mothers tend to talk and play more gently with infant children. Compared to mothers, fathers reportedly appear to "have more positive perceptions of the more irritable sons and less irritable daughters," and perceive their baby daughters to be more cuddly than mothers do. Mothers smile and verbalize more to the infant than fathers do, and generally rate their infant sons as cuddlier than fathers do. Moreover, "men encouraged their children's curiosity in the solution of intellectual and physical challenges, supported the child's persistence in solving problems, and did not become overly solicitous with regard to their child's failures." One study found that six-month-old infants whose fathers were actively involved with them "had higher scores on the Bailey Test of Mental and Motor Development." Infants whose fathers spend more time with them are more socially responsive and better able to withstand stressful situations than infants relatively deprived of substantial interaction with their fathers."
(University of Illinois Law Review1997
U. Ill. L. Rev. 833
The Potential Impact of Homosexual Parenting on Children
By Lynn D. Wardle)